Cyberpolitik Journal http://cyberpolitikjournal.org/index.php/main <p><em>Cyberpolitik</em> Journal - A Peer Review International E-Journal on Cyberpolitics, Cybersecurity and Human Rights - is the first academic journal study in cyberpolitics and cyber security in Turkey. The main mission of our journal is to contribute to the literature of this important field which is in its infancy stage in the international relations literature of Turkey.</p> <p> </p> <p>The goal of the <em>Cyberpolitik</em> Journal is to contribute to the discipline of international relations both nationally and internationally, by analyzing the technological developments, the state's political and security policies, its legal systems and more importantly its democratic structures. From this point of view, the main purpose of the <em>Cyberpolitik </em>Journal is to contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between cyberspace and international relations. Although <em>Cyberpolitik</em> Journal focuses on cyber policy, other important issues such as society, security, peace, international relations, international law and human rights will also be critically analyzed in the journal.</p> en-US nezmen@yahoo.com (Nezir AKYEŞİLMEN) nezmen@yahoo.com (Nezir AKYEŞİLMEN) Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 OJS 3.2.1.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Social Contract in Cyberspace http://cyberpolitikjournal.org/index.php/main/article/view/105 <p>This study tends to point out why security is important in the anarchic cyber space field and the necessity of ensuring security and addressing the issue. The Social Contract theory and the arguments put forward by the theorists and the characteristics inherent in the nature of cyberspace are explained, in this context, the connection and effects of the security of cyberspace users, including individuals, companies and states, have been examined in detail. As a result of the cyber insecurity output of cyber attacks, the discussion of the necessity of a social contract or an online contract in cyberspace has been put forward in the literature, in addition, the compatibility of the contract described by the social contract theorists to the cyber space has been analyzed. It was concluded that establishing trust within a certain framework by creating a set of ethical rules instead of cyber insecurity will ensure the protection of the integrity of individual rights and state sovereignty.</p> Büşra Sel Copyright (c) 2021 Cyberpolitik Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://cyberpolitikjournal.org/index.php/main/article/view/105 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Cybersecurity in Pakistan: Regulations, Gaps and a Way Forward http://cyberpolitikjournal.org/index.php/main/article/view/114 <p>We live in the age of information and globalization. From paying online utility bills to advance health structure, up to date transportation, use of artificial intelligence, developed communication system and technical warfare, modern states are in continuous progress. Technology has reduced the distances, yet new threats and fears have emerged due to its usage. The digital world is under constant cyber threats and crimes such as hacking, bank frauds, money laundering, information theft, state secrets acquired, and even threats to critical infrastructure have become the evolving trends in cyber warfare. Both the developed states as well as developing nations are exposed to such threats leading to national security dilemma. However, developing country, having nuclear capabilities, like Pakistan, is more vulnerable to these threats. Pakistan also has large number of internet users with low information technology knowledge, thus making it further complex for the government and law-making authorities to regulate its digital world. Recently, Pakistan has faced serious cyber-attacks on important institutional websites and hackers have been able to successfully penetrate the cyber space of important installations. To prevent this from happening, legislators in Pakistan have introduced the cyber laws, which do not seem to cover the threats in depth and totality. This research paper focuses on the cybersecurity framework present in Pakistan while what are the policy options for the state of Pakistan to deal with serious cybersecurity issues is the actual matter of concern? The research methodology is qualitative in nature and researchers have used primary as well as secondary sources to draw the conclusions. At the end, few recommendations regarding the improvement in cyber protocols of the country are also put forth.</p> Umair Pervez Khan, Muhammed Waqar ANWAR Copyright (c) 2021 Cyberpolitik Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://cyberpolitikjournal.org/index.php/main/article/view/114 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 China's Cybersecurity Strategies as a Cyber Power http://cyberpolitikjournal.org/index.php/main/article/view/111 <p>With the rapid development of the technology and the increase in connecting objects to the internet, cybersecurity has started to be on the agendas of states. Traditional methods are inadequate and sometimes do not respond to the cyberspace security, which occupies a place between physical and virtual. In this context, this study is examined what China’s cybersecurity strategies are. The reason for choosing China for the study is that it works in various fields to ensure cyber security and this can be an example in terms of how cyber security can be achieved. The study consists of three sections. In the first section, the concept of cybersecurity is defined through cyber insecurity perceptions. In the second section, China’s perceptions of cyber insecurity are discussed and then China’s approach to cybersecurity is described. The third section focuses on what strategies China follows to ensure cybersecurity. Finally, in the conclusion, an evaluation is made within the framework of what has been explained from the beginning to end.</p> Neslihan Topcu Copyright (c) 2021 Cyberpolitik Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://cyberpolitikjournal.org/index.php/main/article/view/111 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Terrorism in Cyberspace: A Case Study of Terrorist Organizations Operating in Pakistan http://cyberpolitikjournal.org/index.php/main/article/view/112 <div> <p>The presence of extremist and radical groups on internet is an old phenomenon as they have been manifesting their appearance in cyber space since their very own inception. However, their dependency in cyberspace operations has enormously expanded since last two decades. The cyber terrorism threat has evolved into a multi-faceted and complex riddle where various ideological dogmas are turning the world into a cyber-war. By 2000, all terrorist groups virtually had set up their online presence. This study aims to map cyber space activities conducted by terrorist organizations operating in Pakistan. How terrorist organizations are making their presence online and how do these outfits use social media for assistance and execution of terrorist attacks. The study tries to delineate case study of four terrorist organizations; Islamic State (IS), Jamat Ud Dawa (JuD), Lashker-e-Tayyaba (LeT), and Balochistan Liberation Army (BLA). The study will explore how do these organizations use cyber space for fundraising, online recruitment, psychological warfare, propaganda, and information-sharing. It will discuss existing laws in Pakistan related to cyber terrorism, challenges and a way forward.</p> </div> Zaheema Iqbal Copyright (c) 2021 Cyberpolitik Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://cyberpolitikjournal.org/index.php/main/article/view/112 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Digitalization of the Banking Sector and Performing Analysis in the World and Turkey http://cyberpolitikjournal.org/index.php/main/article/view/117 <p>Technological developments such as Generation-5 technology, artificial intelligence, smartphones and robots, big data, blockchain technology, augmented reality, software engineering, cybersecurity provide great opportunities for the bank sector. The banking sector is trying to integrate its customers into this process by performing its services over the internet on global scale. Since the first A.T.M. was installed in 1982, digital transformation has started in Turkey, and later there has been a significant transformation engaged in the banking sector. Through the innovations such as ATM, Pos device, credit card, mobile banking, artificial intelligence, the Turkish banking system transformed from traditional banking to internet banking has launched some strategies by placing the digitalization at the center of its corporate strategies. The number of customers use at least once the internet banking in Turkey between 2006 and 2020, has reached 13 million 253 thousand people in June 2020 from 3 million 367 thousand in 2006.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>In this study, the concept and context of digital banking is discussed and the outlook of digitalization in banking sector will be provided for the world and Turkey.</p> S.Buket ÇELİK, Fatih MANGIR Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://cyberpolitikjournal.org/index.php/main/article/view/117 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Ethical Hacking and Countermeasures Web Applications and Data Servers http://cyberpolitikjournal.org/index.php/main/article/view/115 Umair Pervez Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Cyberpolitik Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://cyberpolitikjournal.org/index.php/main/article/view/115 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Cyber Security Engineering: A Practical Approach for Systems and Software Assurance http://cyberpolitikjournal.org/index.php/main/article/view/121 Rabia Sare ASLIYÜKSEK Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://cyberpolitikjournal.org/index.php/main/article/view/121 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Cyber Conflict and International Relations: Liberalism, Neorelaism and Consructivism http://cyberpolitikjournal.org/index.php/main/article/view/107 <p>Parallel to the arrival in cyberspace, a new dimension has been added to the meaning of the concept of conflict, which is one of the important concepts in International Relations, and the concept of cyber conflict has emerged as a component of physical conflict. With the emergence of the concept of cyber conflict, academics have tried to define this definition. These studies were not only sufficient with the effort to define cyber conflict, but also related to the cyber conflict-emergence process, experiments and results. Although there are many studies on cyber conflict, when the literature is examined, the lack of theory on the common issue ignored by research on cyber conflict stands out. Because the cyber conflict analysis made from the International Relations perspective is almost nonexistent. It would not be an exaggeration to reconcile cyber conflict and international relations theories as a new dimension of conflict, based on the presumption that the knowledge conflict that reveals the International Relations discipline. For this reason, its main purpose is to analyze international relations theories and cyber conflict. It is thought that conducting cyber conflict analysis from a theoretical perspective will make an important contribution to the literature.</p> Sabri Bayrak Copyright (c) 2021 Cyberpolitik Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://cyberpolitikjournal.org/index.php/main/article/view/107 Fri, 22 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0300 The Impact of Mass Media Technology on Public Opinion Formation http://cyberpolitikjournal.org/index.php/main/article/view/118 <p>The desire of people to know the developments in their environment has constantly advanced the developments in the field of communication. Over time the concept of mass media has emerged. The systems used in communication were produced primarily for military purposes and subsequently transferred to civilian life. The internet was also developed by the USA for military purposes and started to affect every aspect of human life. Mass media is a system that transmits messages and symbols to the public and from time to time hiding the truth is a propaganda function of the media. News agencies that broadcast globally manipulate societies and put social pressure on managers. Cyber developments provide benefits because they provide access to the information you want in a short time and allow you to communicate with the world very quickly. One of the most common areas brought by the internet is social media. While the formation of social media eliminated the economic difficulties in reaching the news, the audience it reached has exceeded imaginable dimensions. Every keyboard owner can produce news and reach people from very distant places in a few seconds. There are those who think that the media has a limited role and that this cannot lead society in the desired way. Some circles think that the media is more effective than state leaders. It is important how the correct or incorrect use of the media, which is thought to be so effective, will produce results and how much it can direct large masses. The issues of how much state control can be achieved in information technology and how threat perceptions will lead to reactions continue to be interpreted.</p> Ayşegül GÜLER Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://cyberpolitikjournal.org/index.php/main/article/view/118 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Ethics in Cyberspace http://cyberpolitikjournal.org/index.php/main/article/view/116 Nezir AKYEŞİLMEN Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://cyberpolitikjournal.org/index.php/main/article/view/116 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300