Cyberpolitik Journal <p><em>Cyberpolitik</em> Journal - A Peer Review International E-Journal on Cyberpolitics, Cybersecurity and Human Rights - is the first academic journal study in cyberpolitics and cyber security in Turkey. The main mission of our journal is to contribute to the literature of this important field which is in its infancy stage in the international relations literature of Turkey.</p> <p> </p> <p>The goal of the <em>Cyberpolitik</em> Journal is to contribute to the discipline of international relations both nationally and internationally, by analyzing the technological developments, the state's political and security policies, its legal systems and more importantly its democratic structures. From this point of view, the main purpose of the <em>Cyberpolitik </em>Journal is to contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between cyberspace and international relations. Although <em>Cyberpolitik</em> Journal focuses on cyber policy, other important issues such as society, security, peace, international relations, international law and human rights will also be critically analyzed in the journal.</p> Association for Human Rights Education en-US Cyberpolitik Journal 2587-1218 From Cold to Code War: Dissecting Security Strategies for the Cyberspace Strategic Environment and Identifying Cyber Risks to the Nuclear Strategic Environment <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Due to its effectiveness in the Cold War, the security strategy of Nuclear Deterrence has left a seemingly irrefutable imprint on the minds of strategists and policymakers. Nuclear Deterrence is an iteration of conventional deterrence, whereas both enjoy a generalized applicability status in the context of all strategic environments. The ultimate objective of applying these security strategies to any strategic environment is achieving stability. However, as innovative technologies emerge and disparate strategic environments unfold, it becomes critical to evaluate the applicability of nuclear or conventional deterrence as an effective security strategy for these environments. It also becomes critical to analyze the effects of these novel strategic environments on the stability of an international system historically established in all preceding environments. This article explains the variance of approach and mentality when conceptualizing strategic nuclear and strategic cyberspace environments. It then explores the fundamental core differences of these strategic environments which validate such a variance. The article then focuses on how deterrence may not be a viable security strategy for the cyberspace environment before discussing some of the impacts the cyberspace environment may have on the nuclear environment. These impacts have been discussed as risks to the nuclear environment and may have a destabilizing effect on the stability that has been established via nuclear deterrence in the strategic nuclear environment.</span></p> Hammaad Salik Rao Ibrahim Zahid Copyright (c) 2022 Cyberpolitik Journal 2022-08-21 2022-08-21 7 13 2 23 Social Media and the Political Empowering of the Iranian People <p>Technologies such as smartphones and social media offer their users the opportunity to present and exchange their ideas and information as active social players. Meanwhile, Iran is one of the leading countries in which the penetration rate of social media is massive. The power of sharing information, participation, promotion, and political mobilization of social media in Iran can be seen in many fields. This research seeks to answer the question of how social media have had an impact on political empowerment by enlarging people's freedoms and opportunities and improving their influence. The research findings suggest that social media has become the platform for protesting the state policies through sharing and disseminating information, making new narratives, campaigning, and field actions due to restrictions to conventional media; so the unilateral impact of the state media’s discourse has been diminishing drastically. It challenges the state policies and clichés; and the Iranian state has been forced to hear the voices of the people partially as well as to increase its accountability. This research is probing its hypothesis by analyzing four major events in Iran in which social media played an impressive role in 2017-2018. This research based on mainly to internal sources from inside Iran.</p> Ali Omidi Saeedeh MORADIFAR Copyright (c) 2022 Cyberpolitik Journal 2022-08-21 2022-08-21 7 13 24 46 Youtube Gazeteciliğinin Eleştirel Ekonomi Politiği <p>Bu çalışmada, geleneksel mecralardan dijital ortamlara taşınan gazetecilik pratiklerinin eleştirel ekonomi politik bir çerçevede analiz edilmesi amaçlanmış ve burada ortaya çıkan yeni nesil haberciliğin, kapitalizmin sömürü ilişkilerinden bağımsız olup olmadığının sorgulanması hedeflenmiştir. Bu bağlamda, ana akım medyadan kısmen ya da tamamen ayrılan ve mesleğini YouTube’da sürdüren gazeteciler Kemal Öztürk, Yavuz Oğhan, Yıldıray Oğur, Serdar Özsoy ve Adem Özköse ile farklı tarihlerde görüşmeler gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu görüşmelerden elde edilen veriler, betimleyici araştırma yöntemi ile analiz edilmiştir. Çalışmada elde edilen bulgulara göre bir sermaye olan YouTube şirketi, her ne kadar içerik üreticilerini ‘iş ortağı’ olarak tanımlasa da gazetecilerin emeği ile kâr ve sermaye birikimini gerçekleştirmekte, habercilerin soyut emeğini sömürmektedir. Dolayısıyla şirket ile YouTuberlar arasındaki ekonomik ilişki, hiyerarşiye dayalı bir tahakküm ilişkisi olarak dikkat çekmektedir. Şirketin kullandığı kâr ve sermaye birikim modeli, kullanıcı ve içerik üreticilerinin verilerinin metalaştırılmasına dayanmaktadır. YouTube’tan yeteri kadar gelir elde edemeyen gazeteciler izleyici ve takipçilerinden bağış toplamaya yönelmektedir. Dolayısıyla bağımsız ve patronsuz gazetecilik yaptıklarına inanan YouTuber gazeteciler, kapitalist sistem içinde yer alan sermayeye ve takipçi kitlelerine bağımlı hale gelmektedir.</p> Mehmet Baki DEMİREL Copyright (c) 2022 Cyberpolitik Journal 2022-08-21 2022-08-21 7 13 47 76 The Evolution of NATO's Cybersecurity Policy <p>The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) strives to adapt to new security risks, politically, strategically, and technologically to changing conditions. During the Cold War, the Soviet Union was a major threat. Recently, NATO has started to expand into new regions outside of the area with new security problems and has started to focus on cyberspace which differs from traditional military defense understanding. In this framework, since 2016, it has<br>been successfully managing cyberspace threats by accepting cybersecurity as a battlefield. NATO is moving towards a broader understanding of cyberspace as a very high-tech field.</p> <p>This study focuses on the developments in the alliance in line with NATO's cybersecurity policies. In this context, it examines the alliance’s institutions and initiatives and points to the cyber challenges facing NATO in cyberspace. In this study, the development of NATO's cybersecurity policy, its understanding in cyber defense, and the recent transformation of NATO's cybersecurity strategy are evaluated.</p> Önder Aytaç AFŞAR Copyright (c) 2022 Cyberpolitik Journal 2022-08-21 2022-08-21 7 13 77 96 Cyber (In)Security in Metaverse: New Threats Old Measures? <p>As can be seen from Google searches, metaverse , which became one of the most popular concepts – even number one - in cyberspace in late 2021, has gained increasing popularity in literature. Metaverse, for some a more advanced stage of the Internet, is based on blockchain technology, virtual reality and a real-life like virtual space consisting of avatars, three-dimensional glasses, headsets and related instruments. This domain will increase the connection between users, diversify online business and transactions, extend the time spent on the Internet, and accelerate online cooperation and collaboration. While this virtual space increases digitalization, it will add new comfort areas to our lives and provide convenience. However, it is a fact that it will bring new risks and threats.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Therefore, security in the metaverse will become an important issue of the future. Ensuring cybersecurity in metaverse will primarily require the development of new measures against new threats in metaverse, in addition to traditional cybersecurity measures. Although it is safer against technical attacks and malicious software for now due to blockchain infrastructure, it is quite week against social-based attacks such as social engineering, phishing, spam messages, fraud, as in today's cyber space. In this respect, the user is the weakest link in cybersecurity – as it is the case in today’s cyber space- comes to the fore here as well. In this context, it would not be wrong to say that an effective and rights-based digital citizenship education, which will improve the cybersecurity capacity of users, will be an important measure in addition to traditional measures to ensure cybersecurity in the metaverse.</p> Nezir AKYEŞİLMEN Copyright (c) 2022 Cyberpolitik Journal 2022-08-21 2022-08-21 7 13 98 107 Siber Teknolojinin Seçim Süreçlerine Etkisi <p>The purpose of this article is to theoretically present the effect of cyber technology, which encompasses all areas of our lives, on election processes, together with practical examples. Cyber technology, which is increasingly showing its direct connection with globalization, has influenced many political, economic, cultural and various social areas in today's transition from industrial society to information society. The penetration of cyber technology into our daily lives has become an important opportunity, including political activities, in fact, according to its ability to use it. Today, cyber technology has added an extraordinary comfort to our lives, and everyone accepts the many conveniences it brings. A large part of our business, communication, education, shopping and even entertainment activities are embodied in this area. Therefore, this issue, which has infiltrated into the most capillaries of our lives, should be seriously investigated. Since it will not be possible to evaluate and move forward on this issue alone, we must examine all environmental factors to the finest detail. To exemplify this, even the point of view between the generations and the difference in need between the generations are issues that need to be examined. From the difference between the sensitivity of the X generation to social problems and the sensitivity of the Z generation to social problems, from the Y generation's antipathy towards hierarchy, to the work and hierarchy-loving structure of the X generation, it is a very obvious reality that today's technology is an element that affects the behavior of people. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of technology, which so clearly affects the human factor and has reached this point for humans, on the selection processes in all details.</p> Serdar DURER Copyright (c) 2022 Cyberpolitik Journal 2022-08-21 2022-08-21 7 13 108 125 Editorial Opinion <p>Dear Readers,<br />We are proud to present to you the 13th issue of the Cyberpolitik Journal. It is a great honor for all of us to continue our journey that we started six years ago without interruption. Day by day the interest in this field is growing and we get more and more manuscripts. As the digital world grows every day and every second, new developments and new technologies emerge, we are trying to read and understand this area within our limitations.<br />This volume deals with a number of topics ranging from social media to Youtube broadcasting, from Metaverse to strategic issues in world politics. There are also rich contents in this issue and researches that will increase the question marks in our minds.</p> Nezir AKYEŞİLMEN Copyright (c) 2022 Cyberpolitik Journal 2022-08-21 2022-08-21 7 13 vi ix