Cyberpolitik Journal 2023-02-13T01:12:32+03:00 Nezir AKYEŞİLMEN Open Journal Systems <p><em>Cyberpolitik</em> Journal - A Peer Review International E-Journal on Cyberpolitics, Cybersecurity and Human Rights - is the first academic journal study in cyberpolitics and cyber security in Turkey. The main mission of our journal is to contribute to the literature of this important field which is in its infancy stage in the international relations literature of Turkey.</p> <p> </p> <p>The goal of the <em>Cyberpolitik</em> Journal is to contribute to the discipline of international relations both nationally and internationally, by analyzing the technological developments, the state's political and security policies, its legal systems and more importantly its democratic structures. From this point of view, the main purpose of the <em>Cyberpolitik </em>Journal is to contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between cyberspace and international relations. Although <em>Cyberpolitik</em> Journal focuses on cyber policy, other important issues such as society, security, peace, international relations, international law and human rights will also be critically analyzed in the journal.</p> Digital Ethics:Orientation, Values and Attidudes for a Digital World 2023-02-13T01:01:17+03:00 Önder Aytaç AFŞAR <p>Sonuç itibariyle dijital sektörde faaliyet gösteren şirketlerin uyması gereken kurallar konusunda anketler ve saha araştırmalarıyla beraber şirketler dijitalleşmede uyulacak kurallar ve bu alandaki insan hassasiyetler hususunda ışık tutacak, daha çok büyük kurumsal firmaların başarabileceği, uyulması gereken kuralların çerçevesini çizen faydalı bir çalışmadır.</p> 2023-02-13T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Cyberpolitik Journal Digital Citizenship Education Handbook 2023-02-13T01:06:52+03:00 Kamil TARHAN <p>The Council of Europe published the Digital Citizenship Education Handbook in 2019. The experts created for studies initiated on digital citizenship by the Council of Europe have played a vital role in the publication of the handbook. It is certainly a tangible result of the Council of Europe's long-standing training programs for the Competences Framework for Democratic Culture and Democratic Citizenship. Therefore, the study can be stated as gaining a perspective that we can call internet literacy and turning the roadmap created by the Digital Citizenship Education Expert Group, which has been operating since 2016, into concrete form. For this reason, the basic principles of the Council of Europe on democracy, human rights and the rule of law are conveyed to the reader, including online life. The book's authors are the two experts of the Council of Europe, Janice Richardson and Dr Elizabeth Milovidov. While the former is one of the members of Facebook’s security advisor board, the latter is an experienced eSafety consultant, lawyer, law professor and supporter of child rights.</p> 2023-02-13T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Cyberpolitik Journal Editorial Opinion 2023-02-12T23:08:50+03:00 Nezir AKYEŞİLMEN <p>Dear Readers,<br>We are proud to present to you the fourteenth issue of the Cyberpolitik Journal. It is a great honor for all of us to continue the journey that we started seven years ago without interruption. As the digital world grows every day and every second, new development and new technologies emerge, and we are trying to read and understand this area within our limitations. This issue has a new research and in-depth analysis.</p> 2023-02-13T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Cyberpolitik Journal Siber Güvenlik Bağlamında Gürcistan Hibrit Savaşının Analizi 2023-02-13T00:41:21+03:00 Hüma Gül ÇAKIR <p>Geçmişten günümüze teknolojinin gelişimi ile birlikte hayatımızda birçok değişiklik yaşanmıştır ve her alanda gelişmeler meydana gelmiştir. Bunlardan biri de güvenlik alanı temelinde savaş ve savunma alanlarıdır. Teknoloji ile birlikte savaş araçları değişmiştir. Bu durum da savaş yöntemlerine de yeni bir boyut kazandırmıştır. Eskiden kılıç vs. gibi ilkel yöntemler kullanılıyordu. Teknolojinin gelişimi ile ateşli silahlar savaşlarda etkin hale gelmişti. Günümüzde ise bu durum farklı bir hal almıştır. Teknolojinin gelişimi ile hayatımıza giren internet, bir siber silah yaratma imkanı sunmuştur. Küreselleşmenin de etkisiyle, internet kullanımı ile kurulan bağlantılar siber güvenlik alanı yaratmıştır. Bu gelişen olaylar, ülkelerin siber güvenliğe karşı bir savunma geliştirmeleri ihtiyacını doğurmuştur. Bu makalede ilk olarak siber güvenlik kavramı ve etkileri incelenecektir. Daha sonra ise siber bir saldırının bir silah olarak kullanılmasının nasıl mümkün olduğu tartışılacak ve 2008 Gürcistan örneği üzerinden incelenecektir.</p> 2023-02-13T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Cyberpolitik Journal General Situation Analysis of the E-Commerce Sector in The World and in Turkey: Opportunities and Challenges 2023-02-13T00:52:20+03:00 Fatih MANGIR Zehra Feryal ALLAHVERDİ <p>The shift in production and consumption patterns due to the effect of the Covid-19 pandemic has increased the integration of information technologies into production and consumption so that the development pace of the e-commerce sector in the world and in Turkey has gained momentum. While businesses that have completed the digitalization process around the world with the pandemic have easily adapted to the difficult situation in the economy, businesses that do not have sufficient infrastructure have increased their investments to compete in the market. E-commerce has difficulties such as product variety, shopping without a time limit, price comparison, cost advantage, opportunities such as reaching wider audiences, cyber security, product return difficulties, and high logistics costs. Turkey has developed in e-commerce over the years, has made progress in digitalization, and has the potential to increase e-commerce with the advantage of the young population. In this study, the general outlook, opportunities, and challenges of e-commerce in Turkey and in the world are analyzed.</p> 2023-02-13T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Cyberpolitik Journal How The Cyberspace Affect the Cooperation Among the States in the Field of Human Rights 2023-02-12T23:41:41+03:00 Mahdi Musse HASSAN <p>The developing influence of cyber activities in social, economic, political, and military spheres provided cyberspace with an indispensable feature of human life and security. With the rapid growth of cyberspace in this modern society since the introduction of the internet and gigantic digital devices with their indisputable good side, there are also critical challenges and threats led by the internet and digital devices. The bad and good sides of cybersecurity affect the different levels of society, whether normal individuals, business organizations, international organizations, or even governments. Creating mechanisms and answering the consequence of cyber attacks to control the cyber threats appeared to harm the fundamental human right. Since that period, many states have taken the issue seriously regarding ordinary individuals and organizations who meet daily critical cyber-attacks and threats. For instance, 2007 was a cornerstone period of the emergence of global concern about cyber threats when the entire nation of Estonia experienced a large-scale cyber attack. This incident has turned international attention and worries into cyber threats. Currently, nation-states have engaged the sett up regulations and approaches to prevent or minimize the dangers that can be caused by cybersecurity.</p> <p>The developed technological and economic states have shown high doubt between them caused by cybersecurity attacks. Thus, this article explores cyberspace touch the cooperation between the nations in the field of human rights. The paper also focuses on how basic human rights should be respected and protected while implementing the mechanism against cybersecurity. Although nation-states are essential actors in cyber and cybersecurity, it is inevitable to cooperate to achieve a suitable solution for cyberattacks. The paper concludes some state cooperation appeared in the last years, while others attempt to develop cybersecurity which can harm the security of other nations. It is unavoidable to collaborate between the state to reach appropriate and effective responses, which is desired during any cyber attack. In the end, the article also underlined obtaining cooperation among states to establish an uninterrupted multilateral network to defend the cyber threats via guaranteed shared cybersecurity.</p> 2023-02-13T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Cyberpolitik Journal Siber Uzayın Küresel Sisteme Etkileri 2023-02-12T23:48:42+03:00 Furkan Batuhan UÇ <p>This study mainly focuses on the effects of cyber space and accompanying cyber technologies, which have entered the life of humanity in the last thirty years, expanding and deepening its place in our lives and creating an information or information age, on the global system, where not only the external but also the internal sovereignty of the states is somewhat limited. First of all, the great social and political changes and transformations caused by the information revolutions since the 15th century were mentioned. Afterwards, the effects of the information age on the formation of a new global system were discussed with the perspectives of the theories of the discipline of International Relations. In this section, the perspectives of realism, liberalism and constructivism are discussed separately. On the other hand, the innovation that cyber technologies cause in the concept of national security, which limits the sovereignty and control of states to a great extent, has been examined. Thirdly, it is mentioned that it provides an opportunity for the formation of new cyber communities, that individuals can gather and organize faster, and that these virtual organizations can be reflected in our physical lives as protests. Fourth, the benefits it provides to non-state actors and the consequent erosion of the sovereignty of states were examined. Finally, in the face of the positive and negative developments that the cyber universe may create, a utopian and partly dystopian future has been tried to be imagined.</p> 2023-02-13T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Cyberpolitik Journal Machine Learning Approach for Cryptocurrency Fraud Detection 2023-02-13T00:27:26+03:00 Tuba PARLAR <p>Fraud detection is an important aspect of maintaining the security and integrity of the Ethereum blockchain network. Ethereum is a decentralized blockchain platform that has gained widespread adoption for its smart contract functionality. This paper proposes a two-stage machine-learning approach for detecting fraudulent activities on the Ethereum network. In the first stage, we apply SMOTE to balance the dataset, then baseline accuracies are obtained more accurately. In the second stage, we rank the features according to the F_regression algorithm. We evaluate the feature subsets performances of our model on the balanced Kaggle Ethereum fraud detection dataset using logistic regression, Gaussian Naive Bayes, and support vector machine algorithms. Our results show that using the Gaussian Naïve Bayes machine learning method to detect fraud on the Ethereum network gives the highest accuracy.</p> 2023-02-13T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Cyberpolitik Journal Geleneksel Diplomasiden Siber Diplomasiye Geçiş: Aktörler ve Süreçler 2023-02-13T00:34:27+03:00 Özgün ORHON <p>With the globalization process and the developments in information and communication technologies, there is a structural change in the way of carrying out and presentation of diplomacy, which is under the influence of the internet and social media. Cyberspace provides digital/cyber tools that are distinct from traditional diplomatic activities, allowing for more effective implementation of diplomatic relations, therefore, developments in cyberspace forces diplomatic activities to this path. This has led to the emergence of cyber diplomacy which significantly alters diplomatic practices, the ways in which diplomacy is practiced, the methods and tools of diplomacy. In this article, the actors and transformations of diplomacy from traditional diplomacy to cyber diplomacy, the methods and tools applied in diplomacy in the process of evolution from traditional diplomacy to cyber diplomacy will be examined.</p> 2023-02-13T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Cyberpolitik Journal